Health, Water and Illnesses


Ammonia Calculations



Ian Guisseppi Millichip



A brief bit about Nitrogen.


The Nitrogen Cycle is a complex series of reactions where Nitrogen atoms are transformed from one form to another.

The Cycle is not linear and is not a one-direction cycle: it is reversible; has many side reactions; and has a number of loops (smaller cycles) within it.


Animals, Plants, Micro-organisms, and non-biological chemical reactions all play their part within the Nitrogen Cycle. Those reactions are modified by a number of physical parameters such as pH, Temperature and Pressure.

Also, and fundamental to many reactions that are reversible, the relative concentrations of chemicals within the Nitrogen Cycle will determine the direction of flow.


Nitrogen exists within one of three basic forms:

Elemental Nitrogen… the molecular dinitrogen gas (N2);

Organic Nitrogen…….eg DNA, Proteins, and many other bio-molecules; and

Mineral Nitrogen…….eg Ammonium, Nitrites, and Nitrates.


This article, however, is not about the Nitrogen Cycle itself but about Ammoniacal-Nitrogen.





Ammoniacal-Nitrogen (NH3-N) and its measurement is of extreme importance to fish keeping in view of the extreme toxicity of ammonia to aquatic animals.


In focusing in on ammonia within the Nitrogen Cycle, we see that the exact nature of ammonia in water is a mix of ‘localised’ reactions.


Ammonia (as NH3) is often called Unionised Ammonia (UIA) in fish-keeping circles; ammonium is often called Ionised Ammonia in the same circles.


It is a weak base when dissolved in water, but can act as a very weak acid in the presence of some compounds to form amides.


Ammonia reacts with itself (very much like water reacts with itself) to form ammonium (NH4+) and amide (NH2-) ions.

This is a very weak molecular autoionisation and the product concentrations would be negligible within a fish-keeping consideration.


Ammonia in the fish tank


The major reaction of ammonia in water, that is of interest in fish-keeping, is in reacting with the water to produce ammonium (NH4+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions.


This reaction is reversible (see side note on Equilibrium).



At standard temperature and pressure, the pK for this reaction as shown (ie going from left to right) is ~9.2 (as this is an acid dissociation, then the pK is more often called the pKa of ammonia).


The pKa means that this dissociation would produce an alkaline condition if the added water were pure.

It also indicates that if the pH of the water were then changed to a pH = to the pKa then we would have 50% ammonia (NH3) and 50% ammonium (NH4+)…and at that pH the ammonia/ammonium mix would act as a buffer of some sort.


The reaction of ammonia to ammonium could be written in reverse (ie if we add ammonium and hydroxide ions to pure water, we will get ammonia and water produced).


Similarly, the reaction of adding ammonium ions to water gives:



Ammonium (being a salt of a weak base) is a weak acid… can be seen by the production of aqueous hydrogen ions (H+) on addition to water.


That is also a reversible reaction.



Why does pH affect Ammoniacal-Nitrogen?


Going by the principles in the side-notes on Equilibrium, we can see that anything that upsets these equations will case the system to react to oppose upsetting the equilibrium constant (K).


Hence, if we add more hydroxide (OH-) to equation 1 then we will drive the system towards unionised ammonia (NH3) ie back to the left. This can be done by simply increasing the pH.


Similarly, if we add more acid (H+) then that would drive equation 2 to the left towards more ammonium (NH4+). Or, addition of hydroxide in equation 2 would force the reaction towards the right (ie produce more ammonia….which is exactly the same as in equation 1).


As unionised ammonia is very highly toxic to fish, and ammonium very much less so, then we can see that pH has an effect on the effective of ammoniacal-nitrogen from NH3-N in the aquarium.




But it is not just pH that affects the ratio of ammonia to ammonium; temperature and pressure will also affect the ratios.



Do You Know Your Test Kit?


Measuring Ammoniacal-Nitrogen (“the Ammonia Test”) is of importance to fish-keepers.

There are, however, a number of different methods and principles to measure ammoniacal-nitrogen.


Some kits use a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) principle, and some use a principle of measuring Unionised Ammonia (UIA).


The Total Ammonia kits measure both ammonia (UnIonised Ammonia) and ammonium (Ionised Ammonia).


I will not go into the details of each type here, but it is suffice to say that if using a TAN kit that measures both then a zero reading is the safe bet.

If, however, a UIA kit is used then a zero reading is not necessarily a safe bet as the zero reading may not necessarily indicate the ammonia within the actual water at the pH and temperature of the fish tank (this being particularly important if having water tested off-site).


The graphs and calculations below indicate the approximate ratios of ammonia and ammonium within the fish tank at given temperatures and pH in freshwater aquaria.



Ammonia Calculations and Graphs


{this is a copy of a thread I submitted on various internet fish forums}


Part 1. The Calculation Formula.

In gathering that most people use test kits that measure Total Ammonia (ie Ionised Ammonia + Un-Ionised Ammonia), here is an equation to plonk into an XL spreadsheet.

The equation calculates a very good approximation of Un-Ionised Ammonia (ie Ammonia itself) from a measure of Total Ammonia at a given Temperature and measured pH.

{Now, ionic strength has an effect on the ratio of ionised (ammonium) to un-ionised ammonia. However, the effect of taking ionic strength into consideration can be somewhat neglected here if we are considering freshwater.}

1. Open a new XL (or other spreadsheet that will have similar syntax)
2. In the box A1, write 'pH'.
3. In the box B1, write 'Temp/in Celsius'
4. In box A2 (below A1)....enter the pH measured at a given temperature (that is important).
5. In box B2 (below B1)....enter the temperature in degree Celsius.

Then select a suitable box below and paste the following equation into it...


(noting that B2 and A2 refer to the temp and pH.

So.... you get a value.

What do you do with it?

Having measured the Total ammonia (ionised plus unionised), you multiply that value with the answer given in spreadsheet to obtain the very close approximation to the concentration of Un-Ionised ammonia at that temp and pH.

(noting that it is the un-ionised ammonia that is especially highly toxic).


Temp = 25 C; pH = 8.5 (at that temp).
The fraction of un-ionised Ammonia in Total ammonia is ~0.082. Multiply your Total ammonia by that to obtain unionised ammonia.

If you play around with entering differing values of pH and temp, you will see that there can be some pretty surprising changes in unionised ammonia.

Have fun.

Part 2. Reading the Graphs

To add to this, here is a graph I did to show the type of changes you will see with a change in pH at 25 Celsius.

Note the line where 50% of the total ammonia exists as un-ionised ammonia.
If you follow the line to the pH axis, the value is just above pH 9.
This represents the pKa of ammonia at 25 celsius.

And if you notice there are sharp rises and falls in fraction of un-ionised ammonia around that pH with small changes in pH.
What is happening here is the ammonia/ammonium equilibrium attempting to buffer the system and keep the pH near to its pKa with small additions of acid or base.

Part 3. Reading the Graphs…..a more detailed look.

Change of Un-Ionised Ammonia (UIA) with change in pH for different temperatures.

This is assuming that ionic-strength and pH are not affected by temperature.

Now, if we look at a smaller detail….we see….

So, what might this indicate?

Total Ammonia = Un-Ionised Ammonia + Ionised Ammonia

In aqueous solution, ammonia is a weak base, and ammonium is a weak acid.
In an aqueous solution, they exist in equilibrium as:

Ammonia (UIA) < = > Ammonium (Ionised ammonia).

(as the concentration of water doesn’t change substantial in this reaction, then there is no point in showing water).

Without going into the details of thermodynamics etc, decreasing pH will push the reaction to the right, increasing pH will push the reaction to the left.

Now, if we have a close look at, say, a fish tank at pH 8.5 and at 30 celsius.

Imagine that the water is tested at 10 celsius (assuming that the change in temperature doesn’t vastly change the pH…even though pH is temperature dependent).

It can be seen that if the test at 10 celsius is done using a test system that measures un-ionised ammonia then what it will measure is only one quarter the actual un-ionised ammonia in the tank at 30 celsius (ie the tank is 4 times higher than a test for UIA at 10 celsius).

Hence, from this a few important points should be noted for fish keepers:
1. Always measure pH and ammonia (and any other parameter) at the temperature of the fish tank.
2. Increasing temperature increases the proportion of un-ionised ammonia (NH3 or free ammonia).
3. Increasing pH increases the proportion of un-ionised ammonia (NH3 or free ammonia).
4. The ammonia/ammonium system is a pH buffer to some extent.
5. Ionic strength is not included in these calculations, but it should be noted that ionic strength has an effect on pH and on the proportion of UIA.
6. What is not, and cannot be, shown is the effect of pH and water ammonia concentration on the ability of a fish to rid ammonia from its gills. But that is a vital additional point to consider. Ie a fish can die of ammonia poisoning even if you cannot detect a high level of ammonia.
7. If cross-comparing ammonia readings from different test systems, then be clear about exactly what each if measuring.
8. Any sign of ammonia (ionised or un-ionised) is a sign of concern.

Now, in this the exact science has been tamed down. A complete story is quite involved.

ian guisseppi millichip




I have added an active spreadsheet at


For download and use.


If we take a reaction that is reversible…

A+B <> C+D

The reaction will proceed towards equilibrium whereby the ratio of the products to the reactants remains ‘constant’. We give that constant a name, and represent it by a simple mathematical equation.

The Constant, K, is called the Equilibrium Constant and mathematically it approximates to

ie the concentration of C multiplied by the concentration of D, then divided by the concentration of A multiplied by the concentration of B.

The smaller the value of K, the weaker the reaction in producing C and D.

But, if K is very small for the reaction as written, then that means the system prefers to remain profoundly as A and B: and that means that if we start with C and D then the reaction to produce A and B would be very strong.

The reaction is dynamic and will always try to maintain that ratio.

If we then add more of, say, D then the reversible reaction will change to re-establish that equilibrium by driving the reaction backwards towards to the left (ie to make more of either A or B).

This a simplified version of Le Chatelier's principle….which in essence says that if something is stable then anything that opposes that stability will be opposed.

In the above example, other things might affect the equilibrium, eg:

Removal of D by some other reaction (that would drive the reaction to the right);

Removal of A by some other reaction (that would drive the reaction to the left to replace the A);

Temperature, Pressure, or pH may also alter the equilibrium.

The reaction of water with water is like the example equation and with a low K value. The concentration of the water will always remain very high compared to the products, but the products (aqueous hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions) are present at very low and equal concentrations and give pure water its pH of 7.

The range of values of K may be very large. For convenience, chemists use a scale similar to pH (and for the same reason) to denote the value of K. This is called the pK value and is the negative base 10 logarithm of K. (thus a higher pK means a lower K value, a 1 point change in pK means a 10-fold change in K).



Dye and Die

In today’s hobby a debate is never too far away among experienced aquarists. A subject that is repeatedly debated is dyed fish, albeit that it is not really a debate but more often an all round condemnation of the practice. I will outline to you what the process involves and let you make up your own mind.

The octavo-lateralis system in fish


The octavo-lateralis system is an ichthyological term for the sensory system present in fish and amphibians and is made up of the lateral line and the inner-ear apparatus.



by mickeywallace


It is every fish keepers dilemma, what to do when going on holidays? It doesn't matter if it's a short break or the annual trip to the sun, we all have concerns for our pet's health while we are away! Some of us are lucky to have friends or family who are hobbyist with the knowledge and know how to cope, but for the rest of us there is the only other option, ask a friend to check on our wee friends or no one at all.


Thus the dilemma what to do. There are a few simple options we can take. But there are a few things that must be remembered.


- For every action,ere is a reaction.

- Every time we feed our fish, we should allow time for them eat it then remove what is not eaten as it effects water quality. When we are away there is no one there to stop this reaction thus water quality is effected which will become harmful to our fish.




I do not approve of holiday feeding blocks. In the past I tested these, lucky enough I did it before I went away and I found that they dissolved after two or three days and/or the fish broke them up while feeding. Within hours, my water tests showed the results! I can only image the outcome of the tank on my return if I had of used them without checking first.





Personally I have not used one but I would still have concerns about their effect on water quality while I am away. Although, I will admit that they do provide the option of feeding reduced amounts of food at regular intervals, which is decided by you. This could be a short period option for a weekend break etc.



But we are still left with the problem of long term holidays of one or two weeks. I find the best way to cope with this is simple - plan ahead! We usually plan our holidays in advance so it is only natural to plan our aquarium care ahead of time too and using the time prior to our departure wisely and effectively will show the rewards when you return home..


How I planned and worked in the weeks coming up to my breaks.


I am lucky in that a friend who calls regularly volunteered to look after all my pets and with a little training was up to the task.


First on his regular visits I would try to do two things at once - talk while cleaning one of the filters . This way he would have a basic knowledge of their operation and the cleaning process if required, this was also a basics in water changes. Add to this peoples natural curiosity, I was able to teach him about water tests and the correct levels required.


Thus the simple basis is laid for a successful results on your return!!!!!


Two weeks prior to departure:

In the two weeks prior to my departure, I adjusted my feeding routine so the fry gained one extra feed per day. The biggest difference I made was in my adult stock, I added one extra feed which was high protein foods (normally I would not do this because of the risk of liver damage but for short periods this is okay). I also allowed longer time for the fish to feed, this is where a balance must be kept to avoid water quality problems. So I added an extra small daily water change of two or three litres on the bigger tanks and 10% on the smaller ones, for convenience I done this by measuring the water level divided it by ten and the result was measured from the water level down and a piece of tape was the mark I used to measure my water changed (this was for speed while changing water on eight tanks!!).


One week prior to departure:

this is a short week” This week is broken in two and is where water changes and equipment maintenance is essential for a successful outcome on your return.


This week all my strata hovering was done to the maximum, lifting all objects to try and ensure the removal of hazardous waste and anything that may become dangerous. The plants are trimmed and the fish are carefully observed for any signs of potential problems.


If possible, I would add another feed plus I use Immuvit and Lipovit from Tropic Marin, this ensures that all fish have extra vitamins and minerals which will enable the fish to cope with any problems this world will throw at them.


Three days prior to departure I give my last feed in the morning. That same evening again I do the hoovering of the strata.


Two days prior to departure I hoover out fish the waste and check the water parameters.


One day prior to departure is spent hoovering the strata but also today, I check all my equipment and their parts and wires! Today I also added one dose of Esha 2000 and Organic Aqua health treatment, this is just precautionary but I always find it's a wise choice.


In the last few days I copy my practice from exporters and considered the amount of fish that travel thousands of miles safely every week so it can't be wrong!


Lastly I leave out any spares that I have or that may be needed, blankets that can be used in an emergency, battery's for the air pump and test kits that should be enough for one week. I ask my friend to add stress zyme twice a week with two or three days between each dose, to protect friendly and useful bacteria and to protect against harmful or unwanted bacteria.


For a holiday that's longer, the practise is similar except I would add a mid feed, for example, if I was away for four weeks, I'd ask my friend to feed the fish at the end of week two. Usually I would suggest something like frozen daphina or brime shrimp, in this case I would ask them to defrost the food first and remove the fluid before the feed and ensure that whoever is looking after your wet pets checks the water quality the next day!


There are other options which can be used during extended breaks, for example, ask your friend to use measuring spoons that would be used in cooking. This will allow the correct measure of food that you want to be given. But I would advice against trying to follow the normal routine that you would normally use, as we have insight into our tanks that others will never have. But with the spoons it is possible to add some food under a controlled environment but it must be at a reduced amount and over longer intervals to avoid water problems. Really I would only see this as choice for periods over 14 days.



On your return!

On return form the trip, all rested and relaxed, we tend to go straight back to the fish husbandry routine but DO NOT DO THIS. Just as you built the fish up quickly before, now you must ensure that you do not overfeed. Remember, fish will feed very quickly, they will be hungry and may overfeed. Secondly, the friendly bacteria will need time to become fully effective again and we need to give everybody in the tank time to return to normal. This will only take a few days to do but better to allow those few days, plus it allows you to ease yourself back into your beloved hobby.



Things to expect on your return:

There are somethings that will happen no matter what you do, its nature. Fish will die for no other reason than natural causes. These death(s), though hard, would probably have happened if you were there. Fry may be lost, I lost ten Guppies while away but also came home to an extra fifty fry.


Plus in this modern age, mobile phones are the best tool available to you. The peace of mind they provide and you are a simply call or text away if any questions need to be answered, for example, while I was away, one filter had moved slightly and the impeller was rubbing ans making noise so by simply placing the phone right up to the tank I was able to tell my friend what to do to correct the problem.



© – October 2008


Fish diseases are always problematic subject for any aquarium hobbyist. Unfortunately, it can become an epidemic and lead to dead of all stock causing huge lost and disappointment in a hobby that we all dedicate so much time and care.